Glossary


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A

actor-observer bias

phenomenon of explaining other people’s behaviors are due to internal factors and our own behaviors are due to situational forces


ageism

prejudice and discrimination toward individuals based solely on their age


aggression

seeking to cause harm or pain to another person


altruism

humans’ desire to help others even if the costs outweigh the benefits of helping


Asch effect

group majority influences an individual’s judgment, even when that judgment is inaccurate


attitude

evaluations of or feelings toward a person, idea, or object that are typically positive or negative


attribution

explanation for the behavior of other people


B

bullying

a person, often an adolescent, being treated negatively repeatedly and over time


bystander effect

situation in which a witness or bystander does not volunteer to help a victim or person in distress


C

central route persuasion

logic-driven arguments using data and facts to convince people of an argument’s worthiness


cognitive dissonance

psychological discomfort that arises from a conflict in a person’s behaviors, attitudes, or beliefs that runs counter to one’s positive self-perception


collectivist culture

culture that focuses on communal relationships with others such as family, friends, and community


companionate love

type of love consisting of intimacy and commitment, but not passion; associated with close friendships and family relationships


confederate

person who works for a researcher and is aware of the experiment, but who acts as a participant; used to manipulate social situations as part of the research design


confirmation bias

seeking out information that supports our stereotypes while ignoring information that is inconsistent with our stereotypes


conformity

when individuals change their behavior to go along with the group even if they do not agree with the group


consummate love

type of love occurring when intimacy, passion, and commitment are all present


cyberbullying

repeated behavior that is intended to cause psychological or emotional harm to another person and that takes place online


D

diffusion of responsibility

tendency for no one in a group to help because the responsibility to help is spread throughout the group


discrimination

negative actions toward individuals as a result of their membership in a particular group


dispositionism

describes a perspective common to personality psychologists, which asserts that our behavior is determined by internal factors, such as personality traits and temperament


E

empathy

capacity to understand another person’s perspective—to feel what he or she feels


F

foot-in-the-door technique

persuasion of one person by another person, encouraging a person to agree to a small favor, or to buy a small item, only to later request a larger favor or purchase of a larger item


fundamental attribution error

tendency to overemphasize internal factors as attributions for behavior and underestimate the power of the situation


G

group polarization

strengthening of the original group attitude after discussing views within the group


groupthink

group members modify their opinions to match what they believe is the group consensus


H

homophily

tendency for people to form social networks, including friendships, marriage, business relationships, and many other types of relationships, with others who are similar


homophobia

prejudice and discrimination against individuals based solely on their sexual orientation


hostile aggression

aggression motivated by feelings of anger with intent to cause pain


I

in-group

group that we identify with or see ourselves as belonging to


in-group bias

preference for our own group over other groups


individualistic culture

culture that focuses on individual achievement and autonomy


informational social influence

conformity to a group norm prompted by the belief that the group is competent and has the correct information


instrumental aggression

aggression motivated by achieving a goal and does not necessarily involve intent to cause pain


internal factor

internal attribute of a person, such as personality traits or temperament


J

just-world hypothesis

ideology common in the United States that people get the outcomes they deserve


N

normative social influence

conformity to a group norm to fit in, feel good, and be accepted by the group


O

obedience

change of behavior to please an authority figure or to avoid aversive consequences


out-group

group that we don’t belong to—one that we view as fundamentally different from us


P

peripheral route persuasion

one person persuades another person; an indirect route that relies on association of peripheral cues (such as positive emotions and celebrity endorsement) to associate positivity with a message


persuasion

process of changing our attitude toward something based on some form of communication


prejudice

negative attitudes and feelings toward individuals based solely on their membership in a particular group


prosocial behavior

voluntary behavior with the intent to help other people


R

racism

prejudice and discrimination toward individuals based solely on their race


reciprocity

give and take in relationships


romantic love

type of love consisting of intimacy and passion, but no commitment


S

scapegoating

act of blaming an out-group when the in-group experiences frustration or is blocked from obtaining a goal


script

person’s knowledge about the sequence of events in a specific setting


self-disclosure

sharing personal information in relationships


self-fulfilling prophecy

treating stereotyped group members according to our biased expectations only to have this treatment influence the individual to act according to our stereotypic expectations, thus confirming our stereotypic beliefs



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